苹果 II 和 雅达利 8 位机
Synergistic Software, Inc., 1978
Apple II and Atari 8-bit
谈及 70 年代早期的电脑游戏，人们往往会忽略掉技术演示，说明手册和科技杂志扮演的重要角色。以 Apple II 为例，它附带的手册阐述了整台电脑的运行原理，为了教学目的，甚至还包含好几款简单游戏的 BASIC 代码。
其中一款游戏名为《巨龙迷宫》Dragon Maze (1978)，由盖瑞·J·香农（Gary J. Shannon）制作，会随机生成一些简单的俯视角迷宫。玩家需要按下 UDLR（分别对应上下左右四个方向）来探索迷宫，逃脱巨龙的追捕。
这款游戏的代码，能够生成可供探索的无尽地牢，对当时的所有 RPG 爱好者来说，都是一座金矿。罗伯特·克拉迪（Robert Clardy）就是这样一位爱好者。受到《巨龙迷宫》启发，他开始制作自己的地牢探索游戏《地牢战役》。
开始这款游戏后，它会生成出四层地牢——在 Apple II 这台机器上，这需要花费好几分钟时间，所以玩家如果想的话，可以趁这个功夫把地图用纸笔记录下来。地牢生成完毕后，玩家就会踏入其中，开始冒险。
Then talking about the first computer games of the 70s, people often overlook the important role played by tech demos, guides and tech magazines. The Apple II, for example, came with a reference manual which explained how the entire computer worked and contained the BASIC source code of a few simple games to teach its users.
One of these games was Dragon Maze (1978), by Gary J. Shannon, which randomly generated a simple top-down maze. The player had to navigate the maze by pressing U(p), D(own), L(eft) or R(ight), trying to escape before a dragon could catch them.
A series of codes that could be used to generate countless dungeons ready for exploration – this was a gold mine for any RPG fan, and Robert Clardy was one of such fans. Inspired by Dragon Maze, he made his own dungeon-exploring game: Dungeon Campaign.
The game starts by generating four dungeon levels – a process that could take several minutes on the Apple II, giving time for players to try to map it down with pen and paper, if they so desired. Once it was finished, you're sent out to explore it.
游戏并不包含角色生成系统。你的小队在出发时，总是包含 15 位无名的成员，其中有一位是精灵，一位是矮人。这样的设计在今时今日看起来，会显得有点奇怪，但是，在 1978 年那个时候，《龙与地下城》（Dungeons & Dragons）的设定和现在的版本大相径庭，地精和矮人还没有职业一说，人们的关注点也主要集中在大型小队上。
不同类型的小队成员各司其职。精灵发现迫在眉睫的危险时，会发出预警，比方说，附近有陷阱或是敌人的时候，而矮人则负责绘制地下城的地图——如果队伍里的矮人死去，屏幕上的地图将不会再随着探索同步更新。其他小队成员则能够为整个小队贡献生命值和力量值，如果小队成员全部牺牲，那游戏就会宣告结束，而每次战斗胜利，他们的力量都会提升。这意味着，一开始，你的 15 名战士有 15 点力量，经历一场战斗后，提升至 30 点，第二场战斗后，提升至 45 点，但由于一名小队成员牺牲，又下降到 42 点。并且他们真的会死掉。
战斗系统很简单，你只需要掷骰来得到攻击点数，然后用攻击点数与力量之和来检定是否能够命中敌人。游戏内所有的敌人被攻击两次后都会死掉。但是，随着探索深入，命中它们的难度会越来越高。你也许要掷骰来获取敌人的攻击点数，如果你的小队被攻击，会有 1~3 名小队成员牺牲。
地下城中还有一些其他的危险，例如会随机将你传送到其他楼层的陷阱，这时房间里会充满了毒气。每经过四层地牢，都会遇到一位守关怪物。它会追逐玩家的小队，一旦让它靠近，就会有 1 位或者 2 位小队成员被杀死。这些守关 Boss 有不同的行为习惯——第三层的巨蛇能够在迷宫之中实时移动，第四层的幽灵可以穿透墙壁。
There's no character generation; your party always starts with 15 nameless members, including one Elf and one Dwarf. This may sound weird today, but Dungeons & Dragons was a very different game back in 1978 – Elves and Dwarves didn't have classes, and there was a focus on larger parties.
Each type of party member has a function. The Elf warns of immediate danger, such as a nearby trap or enemy, while the Dwarf maps the dungeon – if he dies, the map in the screen will no longer update as you explore. The rest of the party members serve as both your hit points and your strength – the game ends if they all die, but at each victory they increase their strength. This means your 15 warriors will have a strength of 15 at first, go to 30 after the first battle, to 45 after the second, but decrease to 42 if one party member dies. And die they will.
Combat is simplistic, you just roll your attack, which is added to your strength to see if you hit the enemy. Every enemy in the game dies with two hits; they just become harder to hit as you delve deeper. You also have to roll the enemy's attack, and if they hit you'll lose 1-3 party members.
The dungeon offers a few other perils, such as traps that will randomly send you to other levels, and rooms filled with toxic gas. Each of the four levels also has a guardian monster, which will run after the player and kill 1-2 party members if it reaches them. These have different behaviours – the giant snake on Level 3 moves in real time across the maze, while the spectre on Level 4 can pass through walls.
Regardless, Dungeon Campaign is an easy game. It's also short. The goal is not to simply complete it, but to get a high score, collecting as much gold as possible before finishing the dungeon – a score-driven design that mirrors the popular arcade games of the era.