Michael Toy 和 Ken Arnold, 1980*
UNIX (MS-DOS, Amiga, Atari ST, etc)
Michael Toy and Ken Arnold, 1980*
UNIX (MS-DOS, Amiga, Atari ST, etc)
Rogue 正是 roguelike 这一游戏分支类型的源头。尽管其灵感来自于像是 Colossal Cave Adventure（1976）这样的文字冒险游戏，但这类游戏往往着重强调世界观的架构，精心设计的谜题以及故事，而 Rogue 所要实现的则是可重玩性，每次游玩，游戏内要素都是随机生成的，故而每次都有新的体验。Rogue 的游戏目标也很简单，那就是下到地下城找到“Yendor 的护符”并活着带出来即可。
该游戏由 Michael Toy 与 Glen Wichman 共同开发，后来伯克利加州大学的 Ken Arnold 也有参与制作。Rogue 是用该校的 Unix 终端开发，受到了前所未有的欢迎，以至于后来作为一个开源程序被收录进伯克利软件包（Berkeley Software Distribution）中，并传播到其他高校。
在游戏声名大噪的鼓舞下，开发者们成立了一家名为“A.I. Design”的公司，并与 Epyx 达成协议将游戏商业发行。但为时已晚，此时人们早已接受了 Rogue 是一款共享游戏，制作并分享自己的“类 Rogue”游戏，甚至已经发展出了一个新的游戏分支类型。
Rogue gave the roguelike sub-genre its name. It was inspired by popular text-based adventure games like Colossal Cave Adventure (1976), but where adventure games emphasised world-building, hand-crafted puzzles and story, Rogue's primary goal was replayability: its elements would be randomised between each playthrough, producing a new experience every time. Rogue's objective is straightforward: descend into a dungeon to find the Amulet of Yendor and bring it back to the surface – without dying!
The game was developed by Michael Toy and Glen Wichman, with later input from Ken Arnold at Berkley's University of California. Created using the university's Unix terminal, Rogue became so popular it was included on the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), an open-source operating system, spreading to other campuses.
Excited by the game's renown, the developers founded a company, A.I. Design, and made a deal with Epyx to publish it as a commercial title. But it was too late. People had already embraced Rogue as a public domain game, creating and sharing their own “Rogue-likes”, spawning a an entire sub-genre.
在我开始玩到 Rogue 之前，就花了好几年的时间在诸如 Nethack、ADOM 和 Angband 这些“rogue-like”游戏上，并一头栽进其不可思议的复杂度以及独一无二的游戏机制上。我有些惊讶于它的设计之朴素：连人物创建都没有。你给你的盗贼取完名字就丢他去地下城一层开始冒险了。
地图设计也相对简单，每层都是由一个个 3x3 的网格房间构成。地图布局的变数包括房间的有无、走廊连接房间的方式以及每个房间的形变。在后面的关卡里走廊可能会变得更加复杂并且更难走，有些房间可能一片黑，限制玩家的视野。每层只有一道往下的楼梯，直到你找到“Yendor 的护符”，你才能返回上层。
也因此，Rogue 整体结构比 Nethack 更加线性化，但这也让它更加浅显易懂，即玩家需要快速做出的决定更加精简明确。
当然，这并不是说 Rogue 的深度不够引人入胜。和大多数“rogue-like”游戏一样，它的特色就是将魔药、魔杖、手杖、戒指、卷轴这些物品的效果随机化，而且只能通过反复试验来确认。采用不同的策略降低确认过程中的风险，这正是“rogue-like”游戏的主要乐趣之一，但在 Rogue 中，尤其是对于新玩家来说，这点比之后的“ rogue-like”游戏更容易。
从各方面来讲，一概把类似 Rogue 的游戏都归类到“rogue-like”里多少有些不恰当。毕竟融合了地牢探险，随机生成以及永久死亡等要素的游戏，对这些机制的表现方式多种多样，只能说在制作灵感上有些许相似。
I spent years banging my head against the ludicrous complexity and idiosyncratic mechanics of roguelikes like NetHack, ADOM, and Angband before I got around to playing Rogue. I was a little surprised at the simplicity of its design: There's no character creation to speak of. You name your rogue and the game plops you down on the first floor of the dungeon.
The dungeon design is also relatively simplistic. Each floor is composed of a 3x3 grid of rooms. The only thing that changes in the layout is the presence or absence of a room, how the corridors connect the rooms, and the shape of the rooms. On later levels, the hallways may become more complex and difficult to navigate, and some rooms may be dark, limiting the player's field of vision. There is only one stairway down on each level. You cannot go back to previous levels until you retrieve the Amulet of Yendor.
As a result, the structure of Rogue is more linear than something like NetHack, but that also makes it far more accessible: the moment-to-moment decisions a player needs to make are leaner, more focused.
This isn't to say that Rogue doesn't have a lot of compelling depth to it. As with most other roguelikes, it features potions, wands, staves, rings, and scrolls – all of which have random effects and must be identified by experimenting with them. Figuring out different strategies to mitigate the risk involved in identifying these items is one of the chief pleasures of any roguelike, but here it feels a lot more manageable than later versions, especially for new players.
In many ways, calling the games that were created in the image of Rogue “roguelikes” is a bit of a misnomer. The games that sprung from its combination of dungeon crawling, procedural generation, and permadeath expanded on its formula in a range of ways that give them only a passing resemblance to their inspiration.